Pipelines, for a long time, were the most important method of transportation for natural gas. This fixed form of infrastructure has the advantage of lower transportation costs in the long-term. The disadvantage, however, is the dependence of producers on a limited number of buyers and for consumers a limited number of suppliers. With this in mind, few pipeline projects are as contentious as Nord Stream 2, a project that will increase the dependence of the EU on Russian gas in a tense geopolitical environment. Despite opposition, the project looks to be progressing according to plan. Gazprom, the owner of the pipeline, and its Western investors, notably Shell, OMV, Wintershall, and Engie supported by the German and Russian governments, are facing a barrage of criticism from Eastern Europe, the U.S. and the European Commission. Despite pressure to cancel the project, recent developments have increased the likeliness of the pipeline being […]